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The Encyclopedia Of Physics

This extremely popular website (over 300,000 page views per month, mostly on the encyclopedia) provides excellent opportunities for your marketing of photonics products!Besides, you may become a sponsor of our encyclopedia.

The Encyclopedia of Physics

This comprehensive open-access encyclopedia, authored by Dr. Rüdiger Paschotta and provided by RP Photonics, covers much of the areas of optics and photonics.Further below you find a list of examples, demonstrating the coverage of the field.

Since 2012, the encyclopedia is intimately linked with the RP Photonics Buyer's Guide, a resource for finding suppliers of optics and photonics products.The combination of encyclopedia and buyer's guide is ideal for users making informed purchase decisions, and it also provides excellent opportunities for the marketing of photonics products.

Dr. Rüdiger Paschotta, the author of the encyclopedia, offers a broad range of consulting services in topical areas like lasers, amplifiers, nonlinear optics and fiber optics via RP Photonics.His competence is available for development projects, or for tailored staff training courses performed at the customer's location.Also, he has developed powerful simulation software for work in laser technology, fiber optics and thin-film optics.

As mentioned, the investigation of such reduction relations betweendifferent theories is part of the every-day work of theoreticalphysicists, but usually they do not adopt a general concept ofreduction. Rather they intuitively decide what has to be shown or tobe calculated, depending on the case under consideration. Here thework of the structuralists could lead to a more systematic approachwithin physics, although there does not yet exist a generallyaccepted, unique concept of reduction.

We have sketched three structuralistic programs which have beendeveloped since the 1970s in order to tackle problems in philosophy ofphysics, some of which are relevant also for physics itself. Anyprogram which employs a weighty formal apparatus in order to describea domain and to solve specific problems has to be scrutinized withrespect to the economy of its tools: to what extent is this apparatusreally necessary to achieve its goals? Or is it concerned mainly withself-generated problems? We have tried to provide some arguments andmaterial for the reader who ultimately has to answer these questionsfor him- or herself.

Hosted by RP Photonics Consulting GmbH and compiled by Rüdiger Paschotta, this encylcopedia covers basic terminology and principles of laser physics and technology as well as topics in general optics and optoelectronics, nonlinear optics, quantum optics, fiber optics, and optical communications.

Written by scholars, Scholarpedia is a peer-reviewed, open access encyclopedia. The Encyclopedia of Physics is one of the focal areas and a portal page. It currently contains many articles, and many more are planned. There are several related encyclopedias, including coverage of condensed matter, nuclear physics, theoretical high energy physics, and statistical mechanics.

The RP Photonics Encyclopedia (formerly Encyclopedia of Laser Physics and Technology) is an encyclopedia of optics and optoelectronics, laser technology, optical fibers, nonlinear optics, optical communications, imaging science, optical metrology, spectroscopy and ultrashort pulse physics.[1] It is available online as a free resource. An earlier version of the encyclopedia appeared as a two-volume book.[2] As of February 2020[update], the online version of the encyclopedia contains 938 articles.

Since 2012, the encyclopedia is closely interlinked with the RP Photonics Buyer's Guide, a large directory of photonics product suppliers.[3] For the majority of products, there is a one-to-one correspondence between an encyclopedia article and a listing of suppliers for that product.

1) The Standard Model: A Primer, C.P. Burgess and G.D. Moore, Cambridge University Press (2006 and updated 2013 to include the Higgs discovery): This graduate textbook uses the Standard Model of particle physics to introduce the techniques of Quantum Field Theory. The intention is to provide in this way both a practical introduction to calculating in field theory, and an introduction to the phenomenology of the Standard Model.

2) Introduction to Effective Field Theories, C.P. Burgess, Cambridge University Press (to appear 2019): This graduate textbook develops thet tools of Effective Field Theory and provides applications of their use throughout a wide variety of physical situations. (Examples are drawn from particle physics, gravity, precision atomic physics, superconductivity, the quantum Hall effect, fluids and particles moving within media.) The intention is to provide in this way both a practical introduction to using effective field theory, and a sense of the unity of perspective that the EFT viewpoint brings to physics in general.

Physics is the natural science of matter, involving the study of matter,[a] its fundamental constituents, its motion and behavior through space and time, and the related entities of energy and force.[2] Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, with its main goal being to understand how the universe behaves.[b][3][4][5] A scientist who specializes in the field of physics is called a physicist.

Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest.[6] Over much of the past two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the Scientific Revolution in the 17th century these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right.[c] Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences[3] and suggest new avenues of research in these and other academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy.

Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism, solid-state physics, and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons;[3] advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

The Western Roman Empire fell in the fifth century, and this resulted in a decline in intellectual pursuits in the western part of Europe. By contrast, the Eastern Roman Empire (also known as the Byzantine Empire) resisted the attacks from the barbarians, and continued to advance various fields of learning, including physics.[17]

In sixth-century Europe John Philoponus, a Byzantine scholar, questioned Aristotle's teaching of physics and noted its flaws. He introduced the theory of impetus. Aristotle's physics was not scrutinized until Philoponus appeared; unlike Aristotle, who based his physics on verbal argument, Philoponus relied on observation. On Aristotle's physics Philoponus wrote:

Philoponus' criticism of Aristotelian principles of physics served as an inspiration for Galileo Galilei ten centuries later,[20] during the Scientific Revolution. Galileo cited Philoponus substantially in his works when arguing that Aristotelian physics was flawed.[21][22] In the 1300s Jean Buridan, a teacher in the faculty of arts at the University of Paris, developed the concept of impetus. It was a step toward the modern ideas of inertia and momentum.[23]

Islamic scholarship inherited Aristotelian physics from the Greeks and during the Islamic Golden Age developed it further, especially placing emphasis on observation and a priori reasoning, developing early forms of the scientific method.

He also devised his own laws of motion that include 1) heavier objects will fall faster, the speed being proportional to the weight and 2) the speed of the object that is falling depends inversely on the density object it is falling through (ex. density of air).[26] He also stated that, when it comes to violent motion (motion of an object when a force is applied to it by a second object) that the speed that object moves, will only be as fast or strong as the measure of force applied to it.[26] This is also seen in the rules of velocity and force that is taught in physics classes today. These rules are not necessarily what we see in our physics today but, they are very similar. It is evident that these rules were the backbone for other scientists to come revise and edit his beliefs.

The discovery of new laws in thermodynamics, chemistry, and electromagnetics resulted from research efforts during the Industrial Revolution as energy needs increased.[31] The laws comprising classical physics remain very widely used for objects on everyday scales travelling at non-relativistic speeds, since they provide a very close approximation in such situations, and theories such as quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity simplify to their classical equivalents at such scales. Inaccuracies in classical mechanics for very small objects and very high velocities led to the development of modern physics in the 20th century.

Modern physics began in the early 20th century with the work of Max Planck in quantum theory and Albert Einstein's theory of relativity. Both of these theories came about due to inaccuracies in classical mechanics in certain situations. Classical mechanics predicted that the speed of light depends on the motion of the observer, which could not be resolved with the constant speed predicted by Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism. This discrepancy was corrected by Einstein's theory of special relativity, which replaced classical mechanics for fast-moving bodies and allowed for a constant speed of light.[32] Black-body radiation provided another problem for classical physics, which was corrected when Planck proposed that the excitation of material oscillators is possible only in discrete steps proportional to their frequency. This, along with the photoelectric effect and a complete theory predicting discrete energy levels of electron orbitals, led to the theory of quantum mechanics improving on classical physics at very small scales.[33] 041b061a72


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